Wednesday, May 27, 2020

Tanzania Macroeconomic Policy Essay - 3300 Words

Tanzania Macroeconomic Policy (Essay Sample) Content: Tanzania Macroeconomic PolicyAuthorClassSchoolLocationDate of SubmissionIntroductionEconomists argue that macroeconomic policies are put in place to strike a state of balance in the monetary sector of an economy. This is achieved through a combination of fiscal, monetary and exchange rate policies. To attain this, policy makers get charged with the responsibility of devising appropriate policy mix and establishing efficient policy instruments to spearhead the entire macroeconomic policy formulation exercise. Usually, economists experiment with various policy mixes until they achieve the best suited policy mix to match the various factors of economy. These policies need regular review and revision to keep up with the changing trends in the global economy and dynamism. To counter these complications calls for well managed institutions in the implementation of formulated policies CITATION Bla11 \p " 121" \l 2057 (Blanchard, 2011, p. 121).It is ideal for a country to de velop autonomy in the development of its macroeconomic policies. This way, a country has full control of its policy and institutions. There are a number of factors, however, both domestic and international that affect, to a large extent, development of autonomy as far as macroeconomic policy formulation is concerned. This work therefore attempts to look at various factors that affect development of autonomy in macroeconomic policy formulation in the Republic of Tanzania. Formulated policies are in line with the Tanzaniaà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s Development Vision of 2025. CITATION Gov09 \l 2057 (Tanzania, 2009)Being in the category of developing nations in the Sub Saharan Africa, most of these factors look similar since these countries tend to share similar challenges. As a result, much need to be done to realize autonomy. The following factors affect development of autonomy in macroeconomic policy formulation.International FactorsGlobalisation and LiberalisationGlobalisation entails both the f ree flow of assets, resources and goods across national borders. This comes along with emergence of organizational structures meant to manage the growing network of international transactions and economic activities. With globalisation, financial institutions and firms carry out their activities beyond their national borders. Factors of production, financial assets and economic goods flow freely in a global economy. With globalisation Tanzaniaà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s domestic market merges with the global market. Globalisation calls for dynamic policies and strategies that take advantage of available opportunities. Trade development benefits a lot from globalisation in opening avenues to accessing the world market. Globalisation also converts current comparative advantages into sources of competition due to free flow of factors of production, information assets and investment resources. Tanzania faces a challenge of competing favourably with other countries on the global market.Trade liberalisa tion refers to the gradual removal of trade restrictions trough removal of Non tariff barriers and reduction of tariffs. This promotes trade and healthy competition within and outside the economy. Trade liberalisation brings a wide range of advantages such as high quality products, enhanced domestic productivity, low prices among others leading to improved consumer welfare CITATION Bla11 \p 237 \l 2057 (Blanchard, 2011, p. 237). Tanzania in this case has stiff challenge of promoting competitiveness of domestic entrepreneurs and firms.Tanzania is characterised by low technology, poor infrastructure, inadequate physical and human capital that hinder supply and delivery capacity. This makes it tricky for Tanzania to benefit substantially from globalisation and trade liberalisation. Data from the national accounts survey regarding investment reveal that out of the 729 firms the private sector owned 643, the public owned 72 while the remaining 14 were a mixture. The nationals own 549 e stablishments, foreign 121 investments and the joint ventures add up to 59. This clearly reveals that the foreigners posses fairly good control of investment sector and trade subsequently. The main challenge in this case is to address the drawbacks hindering Tanzaniaà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s active participation and integration in global economy.Globalisation and trade liberalisation demand that a country produces high quality products that meet the standards of the international market. This way, a given nation remains viable in the world market. This factor calls for greater consideration when formulating macroeconomic policies. The world market comes up with conditions that every member must adhere to in order to compete at this level. Tanzanian government in formulating its policies needs to keep this into consideration and come up with policies that are in line with the set conditions. In doing this, Tanzania does not enjoy autonomy in formulation of its macroeconomic policies. An example o f the preset conditions, for instance, is the quota system that dictates the quantity of coffee to be delivered to the world market.Foreign AidBeing a developing nation, Tanzania cannot finance its budget fully and thus depends on foreign aid from the developed nations and International Monetary Organisations. These aids are released as grants to assist the Tanzanian government meet its budget target. A report released in 2008 revealed that the revenue collected within Tanzania finances only about 60% of the budget. This means that the rest is financed by the grants from developed countries dubbed as development partners.Some of the institutions that provide the aid are The World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and The US government among others. These grants usually get directed to financing development projects such as infrastructure development like road construction and poverty eradication through sustainable agriculture. This is because about eighty percent of the population relies on agriculture.This foreign aid on the other hand comes along with conditions pegged to them. Such conditions require the state to trade with a specified partner denying it the freedom of choice as to who to trade with. In most cases, the grant provider is the one to enjoy monopoly of trading with this country.This, therefore, denies Tanzania its macroeconomic policy formulation autonomy. The grant providersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬ demands need to be considered when formulating policies.Energy CrisisWide ranging causes of energy crisis such as political instability in oil producing and exporting countries and sour relationship with the Worldà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s superpower bring about devastating effects on the policy formulation of Tanzania. Tanzania relies heavily on petroleum products as a source of energy that drives most sectors of economy. Most, if not all, local industries use oil in their operations as a source of energy. With inconsistent supply of this product due to shortages, the cost of production goes high leading to abnormal pricing of commodities.As a result, Tanzanian government gets charged with the responsibility of regular review of policies on energy to keep updated with the dynamic changes in the global energy sector. In so doing, Tanzania lacks autonomy in development of policies governing energy instead it requires to review them regularly. Continued energy crisis leads to high cost of living and reduces economic growth substantially. It is only political stability in oil producing and exporting countries that can guarantee stable and consistent oil supply.Technological InnovationTechnology, no doubt, has transformed the universe greatly in the last fifteen years or so. This has eased communication and access to information globally. Global rules governing technology need adherence by everyone. Tanzania is slowly transforming and embracing technology and there is need to incorporate technological policies into macroeconomic policies and make them fu nctional.Technology eases communication globally and fosters trade through marketing. The internet, for instance, is a superb platform for marketing and even selling of products. Tanzania therefore needs to fast track technology embracing in order to compete favourably in the global market.The policy makers of Tanzania have a task of reviewing policies on regular basis to cope with these dynamics globally. In so doing, Tanzania adheres to what the globe has decided and has no room for autonomy. Despite being a sovereign state Tanzania is not going to enjoy autonomy in policy formulation any soon, unless it achieves economic actualization. Technological innovation enables one view and follows what is going on at the international market from the comfort of their houses. Indeed technology makes our world a village.Domestic FactorsNatural and Human ResourcesFor any given nation, natural and human resources play a major role in the growth of its economy. These two factors when well util ised guarantee economic stability that helps a country easily attain autonomy in formulating its macroeconomic policies. This is possible because the economy funds itself from within. Developing nations, however, have most of the natural resources as agricultural based merged with few minerals. Agricultural products earn little cash on the international market living the producing country with a deficit in its budget. Tanzania depends on agriculture to provide about eighty percent of its GDP with main export crops being coffee, cashew nuts, cloves and cotton. In addition to this, the agricultural sector is subjected to environmental factors and adverse weather conditions affect the performance of these crops. This does not guarantee of consistent income from time to time as ità ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s thrive is environmental based.National Accounts data evaluating economic growth in the first quarter of the year...

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